Floor sanding and polishing services Melbourne | Floor restoration services

TWT Flooring, we’re a privately-owned floor sanding and polishing company in Melbourne with over 10 years’ combined experience in the industry. Our crew of experienced local floor sanders in Melbourne has many years of experience and is very proficient. You will always receive the greatest guidance and outcomes at a reasonable cost thanks to their industry experience. Our goal is to ensure that you are satisfied with the calibre of work and service you have received, rather than to be the least expensive company in the market.

Both residential and commercial customers can take advantage of our floor sanding or Melbourne services at TWT Flooring. Sanding can be applied to many different types of floor materials, such as wood, cork, particleboard, and occasionally parquet. Besides, sanding can change the character of old floors. In addition, sanding can alter the personality of worn-out floors. Both new and old floors are sanded and polyurethaned by us, even if the former have cork or linoleum installed. The nails that are visible above the hardwood surface are driven down deeper to prevent damage to our gear and to hide the shining nail heads once the polyurethane is sprayed. Then, any gaps or nail holes must be filled. Initially, a coarse sandpaper is used to remove any surface scratches, prior coatings, and minor irregularities between floor boards. Before applying any polyurethane, staining, or blonding, we go through the various grades of sandpaper to smooth the surface.

Many words that are sometimes difficult for people who are not specifically involved in floor sanding to understand are used when timber floors are sanded and coated. There are terminology for both the procedures followed and the tools utilised. Furthermore, there are words used specifically for sanding flaws. A glossary of terms related to the floor sanding procedure, tools utilised, and potential flaws will be included on this discussion.


Regarding floors that have been coated and sanded, the goal of the sanding procedure is to produce a smooth, level surface that can accommodate the coating system of choice. The methods will differ to some extent based on the type of wood, the state of the floor, whether it is a new floor that needs to be sanded or an old floor that needs to be re-sanded, and if the floor needs to be clear coated or stained and coated. Sanding smoothes down the board's surface, and as one works through progressively finer paper grades, the "scratches" become even more refined until their overall influence on the finished floor is manageable. Since a fine paper cannot completely remove deep scratches from a coarser paper, it is crucial to avoid "skipping" grades. Each paper grade decreases the depth of the scratches caused by the preceding paper grade.

  • Level or Basic Sand-:This is done with coarser grit (grades) of sand paper in an effort to "cut" the boards flat by eliminating any shape deformation (such as cupping) and any unevenness (or mismatch) between the board edges. It's critical to determine the reason of cupping on a floor before removing it. If the cupping is caused by a moisture gradient, sanding the floor could lead to crowning down the road. Each project should be evaluated on its own merits to determine which starting paper should be used, as the paper grade chosen for the first cut will differ from project to project. Using a huge drum or belt sander, sometimes called the "big machine" , three passes are usually done over a newly laid floor: first, at an angle to the boards, and then linearly with the boards. The corners of rooms, the space between doors, and the vicinity of walls are all inaccessible to this equipment. The technique of edging involves utilising a smaller sanding machine to level the boards in these sections and create a surface that is equally smooth as the floor's main body. A hand scraper and sometimes a smaller sanding machine are used in conjunction with hand sanding in particularly hard-to-reach regions. Sanding the entire floor surface with a specific grade of sandpaper is referred to as a "pass."
  • Finish Sanding –:This is the procedure that moves a levelled and sanded floor one step closer to the coating stage. Using finer grade(s) of sand paper, the goal of this sanding stage is to smooth out the coarser sanding markings that the basic or level sand left behind. The goal is to lessen the depth of the scratches and prepare the floor for the following step of the procedure. "Hard plating" should be applied to the floor following finish sanding. While some contractors may choose not to do this, floor sanders should give it careful thought if they want to get the greatest outcome possible for the finished floor. The method of hard plating involves utilising a rotary machine with sand paper on an inflexible base plate to create a level floor surface. If done correctly, this process can assist remove small sanding imperfections that may have been left behind after using the larger machine and edger. "Hard plating" should be applied to the floor following finish sanding. While some contractors may choose not to do this, floor sanders should give it careful thought if they want to get the greatest outcome possible for the finished floor. The method of hard plating involves utilising a rotary machine with sand paper on an inflexible base plate to create a level floor surface. If done correctly, this process can assist remove small sanding imperfections that may have been left behind after using the larger machine and edger. The floor is "buffed" as the last step. The same rotary machine that is used for hard plating is typically used for this, but the sand paper is fastened to a more flexible pad on the machine's base. This is the last procedure before the floor is coated. Its goal is to create a consistent scratch pattern throughout the whole surface and serves as the last floor inspection before the coating is applied. The goal of each step in the sanding process is to accomplish a particular result, which is a level floor with few, barely noticeable sanding lines and minimal variation between any two parts of the floor.Every step in the sanding process is planned to accomplish a certain goal, and the finished product is a level floor with very few, tiny sanding marks and minimal variation in any one region when compared to another.


The specific equipment and methods utilised by different contractors to sand a floor differ to some extent. That being stated, all floors are sanded using identical equipment and a comparable method in order to prepare them for coating. Understanding the features of the equipment being used on the floor is crucial because each piece of equipment has unique qualities and produces varying outcomes.

  • Drum Sander -:Sandpaper is attached to the exterior surface of a drum, which is a cylindrical wheel, in the classic floor sander configuration. To prevent drum markings, the sander must only be moved forwards or backwards by the operator, who brings the sanding drum into contact with the floor . The machine is used to initially flatten the floor throughout the main body of the floor, which is often accomplished by making passes first at an angle to the boards and then in line with them, as mentioned above. After that, it's also applied to finish sanding. It's commonly called "the big machine". Hummel, Clark, and Galaxy are a few common machine names or brands.
  • belt sander-: This also has a drum, just like the drum sander, but also has a little cylinder above the drum that makes it possible to utilise a sanding belt. Throughout the majority of the floor, it serves the same purpose as the drum sander. Also often referred to as the big machine.
  • Edger-: A smaller hand-guided machine is utilised around the main perimeter of the floor because walls cannot be sanded closely by the size of the drum or belt sander. The edger is easy to manoeuvre and features a revolving disc. The edger can be oriented to limit the visual impact of the scratches created by this portion of the sanding process by "clocking" it against the wall that is being sanded up to.
  • Rotary machines-: These are used for hard plating and final floor sanding. They have a rotating circular base plate. For the sanding process, a finer grade of paper is glued to the plate. These devices are frequently referred to by their manufacturer's name, such as "Canterbury" or "Polyvac." The floor can be "hard plated" using larger machines like the "Canterbury" by using a less flexible or tougher plate to support the abrasive. When combined with a more flexible base plate or pad, this kind of machine can also be used for "cutting back," which is the process of lightly abrading the coating to remove roughness and create a mechanical key for the subsequent coat. This procedure frequently makes use of a screenback, which is a fine sand paper or mesh. Certain stains can also be applied with this kind of machine.
  • Trio-:Lagler manufactures a multi-head sanding machine called the Trio, which works well for hard plating. The Trio features three tiny spinning discs on the main moving disc, as opposed to a rotary machine's single rotating disc. There are now multi-headed base plates available for the rotary machines listed above as well as other models.
  • Random Orbital Sander-:To make sure that edges and hard-to-reach places, such cupboards, blend seamlessly into the rest of the floor, a little hand-held random orbital sanding machine is frequently utilised in these locations.
  • Corner sanding -: In areas that are difficult to access, and have been hand scraped, this would include corners and sometimes along skirtings and joinery, a very small hand held corner sander is often used to ensure that these areas blend smoothly into the main body of the floor.
  • Terms related to sanding defects

    it is clear that the various types of sanding equipment used on timber floors can result in a wide range of sanding imperfections. Those relating to a revolving drum differ from those from rotary disc equipment. Various specific words have been used over the years to designate the different types of flaws. Some sanding defects in a floor may be acceptable, depending on their severity, position, and frequency of occurrence.

  • Drum Marks-:These are depressions left by the large machine created by the sandpaper (over the drum) pausing on the floor. The huge machine operates on the concept that while the sand paper is in contact with the floor, the machine must move forward or backward. The marks can be observed on the floor or around the room's perimeter.
  • Chatter Marks-:are (often minor) indentations that run perpendicular to the length of the flooring. The markings are uniform and tightly spaced. These are frequently caused by the drum or belt sander being out of balance, worn or not thoroughly cleaned, or the combination of a specific equipment on a specific floor.
  • Wave and ripple marks –:These are comparable to chatter marks in that they are perpendicular to the flooring's flow and are spaced more apart. Ripples can form when dirt accumulates on the drum or belt sander's wheels.
  • Scalloping –: Generally this fault results from ineffective or poor technique when edging. With inattention to sanding up to the likes of patio doors it is possible to get a scalloped appearance across the floor.
  • Rotary scratch markings-: Rotary sanding equipment does produce scratches on a floor. When floors are stained, the effect can be accentuated because the scratches absorb more of the stain, accentuating it. It is critical to determine the level of scratching that will be tolerated in the finished floor; this will differ depending on the coating chosen and whether the floor is to be stained.
  • Straightening scratches-: These are scratches that run parallel with the direction of the flooring and are from the drum or belt sander.
  • Swirl marks (or cob-webbing) –: Light abrasion between coats (screening) is usually carried out with rotary equipment and can result in swirl marks. Again understanding the coating you are using and drying characteristics of the coating is important to help minimise this occurrence.
  • Edger markings –:Marks made by the edger, a sander used to sand the room's perimeter. These could be unattractive scratches or scallops on the floor.
  • Grain dish out -: A soft pad on any rotary machine can remove more of the softer grain timber than the tougher grain timber, causing minor variances in the board surface known as 'dish out of grain'. This occurs most frequently when a floor is "over buffed" with a rotary machine and soft pad combo.


There are a variety of scenarios for when a timber floor will require sanding and finishing, with each project having its own set of time constraints and site conditions to deal with, but it is widely accepted in the industry that the finishing of the timber floor should be completed as late in the build or project as possible. The major goal is to minimise any potential harm to the completed floor.

Repairing scratches, dents, pollutants, and water or paint stains can be expensive and detract from the final floor's beauty. External considerations such as driveway completion should be considered in order to reduce dirt, dust, and stones transported inside, and simple things such as light and power availability can easily be ignored while scheduling for the floor to be finished.


The sander will finish the floor with a range of instruments, the bulk of which require power. The big machine (belt or drum sander) requires a lot of electricity to start and run, and sanders frequently work in groups, so it is not uncommon for three to four machines, such as orbital sanders, edgers and vacuum cleaners, to be running at the same time. This can place a pressure on electrical circuits, so ensure sure there is enough room on your circuit board to handle the heavy loads.

If power is not accessible, generators can be rented to provide electricity; however, this should be discussed with the sander before beginning the operation. Many sanding tasks have been delayed because the equipment's power requirements were overestimated.

Making sanders run lengthy leads off builder's power on construction sites is not recommended since it can cause power drops in the machines, resulting in uneven belt revolutions, which can cause unpredictable sanding markings in the floor and harm the equipment.

A sander must also have access to adequate lighting in order to see what they are doing and identify possible problems and correct them while working. Adequate natural and artificial lighting, as well as a dependable power source, will provide the sander with the best chance of producing a smooth and even finish.


A sander could reasonably expect to arrive upon a clean location with easy access. Heavy equipment must be brought in, and extensive amounts of flooring may need to be prepared. Requesting that painters tape the floor in front of skirting boards (and remove the tape once the painting is finished) and giving the area a general clean and tidy up before the sander arrives will help to create a good environment for the sander to do their best work. Protecting stair treads and risers is also beneficial, as these sections can be time-consuming to prepare.

In order to determine the right paper grits and floor sanding technique for the particular species of wood, kind of floor, and state of the floor, the sander should examine the floor before starting any work to make sure there are no possible pollutants or moisture problems.

When sanding is being done in an existing home, unsealed foods should be removed from the timber flooring areas, since some coating materials (particularly solvent-based coatings) can leach into foods, rendering them unsafe for ingestion. Similarly, fish in aquariums should be removed from the home to avoid the water-absorbing coating vapours.

For owners who are inexperienced with the sanding process, it is expected that the sander explain the stages involved, discuss the finishing alternatives, and address any concerns that the owner may have before beginning work on site.

Sand & Polishing - FAQ

  • Will there be much dust?-:The majority of the powered equipment will be connected to a dust bag or a hoover, which will gather the dust. This minimises the amount of dust in the air and on the floor, allowing the sanding equipment to perform more efficiently and lowering the sander's health risk. Vacuuming before coatings removes more dust from the floor, reducing dust contamination in the coating. Having said that, the process is far from dust-free, and a small layer of dust can be expected to settle on benches, sills, curtains, neighbouring carpet, and anything else exposed to the general timber flooring area.In a new home, excess dust is easily cleaned up once the floor is ready to walk on, but in an existing home, it is best to remove or cover curtains, remove items from benches, tape along kitchen cupboard openings, and hang plastic to protect cupboard contents and other rooms that will not be sanded. Although the sander will make every effort to eliminate dust, they cannot be expected to clear up all of the dust that settles around the house.
  • Should the internal doors come off?-:Most experienced sanders are used to working around internal doors, and they will typically remain in place during the sanding process, with the sander performing as much of the job as feasible with the doors closed. Having to reinstall the doors on a finished floor increases the danger of scratching or ruining the final coat. If the sander senses a potential problem with a door, they may request that it be removed; however, internal doors can typically be left on for the remainder of the project.
  • Can my floor be sanded and coated in stages?-:For best results, all timber flooring in the same project should be prepped, sanded, and coated in one operation. Coatings and timber are constantly reacting to their surroundings, including UV rays from the sun, which can alter the colour of the floor over time. Finishing different areas of a floor over a period of weeks or months has the ability to make each finished region look different than other parts of the floor that were done earlier.When project staging is unavoidable, an obvious break in the floor, such as a step down or staircase, or a visual barrier, such as a wall or separate room, can assist mask any colour changes that may occur over time. When this is not practicable, consider finishing along a board join, as this frequently reduces the disparity.
  • How long will the job take?-:Many factors will influence this, including the size of the project, the type of finish used (e.g., staining or clear coating), the style of flooring (e.g., old or new, clean or with features), the number of people on the sanding team, the arrangement of the floor, and so on. Temperature and relative humidity can also influence how long coats take to dry and what times of day they can be applied.Once the flooring contractor has viewed the floor and checked the expected weather conditions, it is realistic to anticipate a fairly exact completion date prior to the start of the job. Sanders should delay applying the final layer in windy situations or on days with severe temperatures.Under normal conditions, an experienced two-person sanding team should be able to complete 100m2 of new flooring with three coats of clear finish in about three to five days.
  • Can I stay in the house while the repair is being done?-:Generally, once the sanding begins, the floor and any adjacent portions of the building will become completely inaccessible until the final coat has dried and is safe to walk on. While some are low in VOCs (resulting in odour until cured) and emit very little scent, such as water-based coatings, it is not suggested that people sleep in a home with a wet coat drying. People entering the space can also introduce contaminants or might step in the coating, which can create more work for the flooring contractor and can compromise the quality and durability of the finished floor.As a result, alternative accommodations for the duration of the project, as well as drying time following the final coat, are required. 
  • Will the skirting boards, kitchen, or walls be damaged?-:It is normal for sanders to work right up to finished kitchens and painted skirting boards, so minimal damage to these areas is to be expected. Occasionally, the edging machine will mark a skirt or scratch a wall, which is regarded a standard part of the operation; however, anything that requires more than a basic paint touch up is inappropriate and should be brought to the flooring contractor's notice.It is critical to give enough time for skirting board paint to dry and cure before sanding and coating the floor, as new paint in close contact with the floor coating can chemically react, and if the paint is still soft, the sanding equipment may scratch the paint off more easily. It is helpful to inform the sander when and with what type of paint the skirting boards have been finished.If the floor is being stained or tinted, some colour may get up on the skirting boards, which may need to be repainted once the floor is finished. If skirt damage is expected as a result of the type of floor finish used, the flooring contractor must plan for and communicate this. To avoid skirting board damage, it may be more useful to leave the skirting boards off and install them after the floor is finished. Masking the skirtings before applying stain to the floor helps to reduce marking of the skirting boards.
  • Should I caulk the floor's perimeter?-:This is a personal decision that is frequently not available when your floor is being built as part of a construction project. Most floors are not fully flat after installation. If the skirting boards are installed before the floor is sanded, there may be slight and varied shadows underneath them.Similarly, installing cabinetry over an unfinished floor might produce the same impression. Because the flooring contractor cannot sand below these areas, an uneven finished edge may remain around the perimeter of the floor after completion. The most typical approach to conceal this is to add a bead of silicon or flexible caulking compound to the perimeter, resulting in a smooth finish. Ideally, silicone should not be utilised because it can contaminate the coating and cause future coating rejection concerns. However, flexible acrylic or polyurethane caulks represent less of a contamination risk to the coatings if future sanding is required, with acrylic caulks being the most typically employed.Caulking is a separate professional trade from sanding and finishing, so talk to your sander about how you want the perimeter done. If 'caulking' is not your preference, the flooring contractor may be able to provide an additional price to come to the site prior to skirting and cabinets installation to sand these areas flat, known as a pre-cabinetry and perimeter sand, so that these things rest more uniformly on the flooring. This should reduce the need for 'caulking' around skirting boards and result in a finish with sharper lines, if that is the desired look. It is expected that the contractor installing the skirtings will scribe them to the floor to provide the best possible finish.To avoid surprises or hidden expenditures, discuss your preferred finishing approach with your flooring contractor or project manager early in the design process.
  • When will I be able to walk on the finished floor and move my stuff back in?-:Drying durations for different coating techniques vary, and it might take anywhere from 24 hours to 5 days to be able to walk on the floor securely once the final layer is applied. If immediate access is required, your flooring contractor and the coating's production requirements will assist you in determining the minimal amount of time required before the floor can be walked on. Walking on the floor at this early stage of curing is dangerous, thus only dry, clean socks should be used. Avoid wearing shoes or bare feet on the floor until approved by the flooring contractor.It is critical to realise that the floor coating might take weeks to properly cure, and that in the early days after completion, the coating may be fragile and scratchable, so use caution while putting furniture back into the room.Most coating instructions recommend a minimum of 48 hours before furniture can be brought in and up to 4 weeks before laying down carpets or rugs and covering areas of the floor. Waiting as long as possible for rugs to go down will help minimise the colour change that can occur at the edges of rugs over time.

On completion of any site sanded and coated timber floor it’s helpful to check with your flooring contractor and the coating manufacturer’s product information to confirm the following 5 important points:

  • When is it safe to walk across the floor?
  • When is it safe to move furniture onto the floor?
  • When
  • may I cover certain portions of the floor with carpets or rugs?
  • When
  • can I safely begin cleaning the floor with moisture?
  • What
  • should I use to clean my floor?

Most sanders become very familiar with the coating products they use and should be proactive in providing you with the answers to the above questions and suitable cleaning and maintenance care instructions.


The seven main considerations of coatings selection are:

  • Health effects on the premises occupants, pets, visitors, and the person applying the coatings
  • Aesthetic variables, such as the hue impact on various timbers and gloss levels
  • Slip and wear resistance, low or high maintenance requirements, and so forth are examples of functional qualities.
  • Application user friendliness for sanders and finishers, taking into account wet edge time, tannin and application mark resistance, surface quality, pot life, one or two pack mix time, and waste issues, among other things.
  • Cost
  • Productivity when returning to the site to coat the floor.
  • Re-occupancy time refers to how long it will take for the premises to be ready to be re-occupied in terms of occupant health and coating curing.

Coatings can vary significantly across and between classes.

Coating performance varies significantly among coating types, such as waterborne to solventborne polyurethane (PU), oil modified urethane (OMU), sealers, one and two packs (1k and 2k), and so on. Performance can also vary significantly within a coating class, such as fast dry sealers, waterborne one packs, and so on.

Functional performance is typically measured after occupancy and covers variables such as wear resistance, slip resistance, ease of maintenance, edge bonding issues, client health impact, and so on. On-floor performance is related to actual on-the-job performance variables as listed below.Understanding the vagaries of a coating type can assist in ensuring the best outcome of a quality finish and having a satisfied customer.

Factors that can impact the on-floor performance of a coating include:

  • Temperature and humidity of both the room and the floor surface.
  • Tannins and extractables content and kind are features of timber species.
  • The age and storage history of the coating prior to application
  • Premixing before use.
  • The phasing, settling, or floating of additives in the coating
  • Sanding and application tools.
  • Coatings Application Technique

The following information applies to the following coatings classes: solventborne polyurethane one (moisture cured or MC) and two pack, waterborne polyurethane (WBPU) one and two pack, and oil modified urethanes (OMUs). However, with the recent increase in the popularity of hard wax oils, some inclusion has occurred. It is also meant to serve as a reference to help people understand how qualities can vary within a coating class based on the coating's normal properties.